Table of Contents
- What is a Router?
- Routing Information Protocol
- IP Addresses and the Internet
- Subnet Addressing
- Private IP Addresses
- Single IP Address Operation Using NAT
- MAC Addresses and Address Resolution Protocol
- Domain Name Server
- IP Configuration by DHCP
What is a Router?Top
A router is a device that forwards traffic between networks based on network layer information in the data and on routing tables maintained by the router. In these routing tables, a router builds up a logical picture of the overall network by gathering and exchanging information with other routers in the network. Using this information, the router chooses the best path for forwarding network traffic. Routers vary in performance and scale, number of routing protocols supported, and types of physical WAN connection they support.
Routing Information ProtocolTop
One of the protocols used by a router to build and maintain a picture of the network is the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Using RIP, routers periodically update one another and check for changes to add to the routing table. The DG834 ADSL router supports both the older RIP-1 and the newer RIP-2 protocols. Among other improvements, RIP-2 supports subnet and multicast protocols. RIP is not required for most home applications.
IP Addresses and the InternetTop
Because TCP/IP networks are interconnected across the world, every machine on the Internet must have a unique address to make sure that transmitted data reaches the correct destination. Blocks of addresses are assigned to organisations by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Individual users and small organisations may obtain their addresses either from the IANA or from an Internet service provider (ISP). You can contact IANA at www.iana.org. The Internet Protocol (IP) uses a 32-bit address structure. The address is usually written in dot notation (also called dotted-decimal notation), in which each group of eight bits is written in decimal form, separated by decimal points. For example, the following binary address: 11000011 00100010 00001100 00000111 is normally written as:126.96.36.199 The latter version is easier to remember and easier to enter into your computer. In addition, the 32 bits of the address are subdivided into two parts. The first part of the address identifies the network, and the second part identifies the host node or station on the network. The dividing point may vary depending on the address range and the application. There are five standard classes of IP addresses. These address classes have different ways of determining the network and host sections of the address, allowing for different numbers of hosts on a network. Each address type begins with a unique bit pattern, which is used by the TCP/IP software to identify the address class. After the address class has been determined, the software can correctly identify the host section of the address. The follow figure shows the three main address classes, including network and host sections of the address for each address type.
The five address classes are:
- Class A
Class A addresses can have up to 16,777,214 hosts on a single network. They use an eight-bit network number and a 24-bit node number. Class A addresses are in this range: 1.x.x.x to 126.x.x.x. ·
- Class B
Class B addresses can have up to 65,354 hosts on a network. A Class B address uses a 16-bit network number and a 16-bit node number. Class B addresses are in this range: 128.1.x.x to 191.254.x.x.
- Class C
Class C addresses can have 254 hosts on a network. Class C addresses use 24 bits for the network address and eight bits for the node. They are in this range: 192.0.1.x to 223.255.254.x.
- Class D
Class D addresses are used for multicasts (messages sent to many hosts). Class D addresses are in this range: 188.8.131.52 to 184.108.40.206.
- Class E
Class E addresses are for experimental use. This addressing structure allows IP addresses to uniquely identify each physical network and each node on each physical network. For each unique value of the network portion of the address, the base address of the range (host address of all zeros) is known as the network address and is not usually assigned to a host. Also, the top address of the range (host address of all ones) is not assigned, but is used as the broadcast address for simultaneously sending a packet to all hosts with the same network address.
In each of the address classes previously described, the size of the two parts (network address and host address) is implied by the class. This partitioning scheme can also be expressed by a netmask associated with the IP address. A netmask is a 32-bit quantity that, when logically combined (using an AND operator) with an IP address, yields the network address. For instance, the netmasks for Class A, B, and C addresses are 255.0.0.0, 255.255.0.0, and 255.255.255.0, respectively. For example, the address 192.168.170.237 is a Class C IP address whose network portion is the upper 24 bits. When combined (using an AND operator) with the Class C netmask, as shown here, only the network portion of the address remains:
11000000 10101000 10101010 11101101 (192.168.170.237) combined with: 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 (255.255.255.0) Equals: 11000000 10101000 10101010 00000000 (192.168.170.0)
As a shorter alternative to dotted-decimal notation, the netmask may also be expressed in terms of the number of ones from the left. This number is appended to the IP address, following a backward slash (/), as "/n."In the example, the address could be written as 192.168.170.237/24, indicating that the netmask is 24 ones followed by 8 zeros.
By looking at the addressing structures, you can see that even with a Class C address, there are a large number of hosts per network. Such a structure is an inefficient use of addresses if each end of a routed link requires a different network number. It is unlikely that the smaller office LANs would have that many devices. You can resolve this problem by using a technique known as subnet addressing. Subnet addressing allows us to split one IP network address into smaller multiple physical networks known as subnetworks. Some of the node numbers are used as a subnet number instead. A Class B address gives us 16 bits of node numbers translating to 64,000 nodes. Most organisations do not use 64,000 nodes, so there are free bits that can be reassigned. Subnet addressing makes use of those bits that are free, as shown below.
A Class B address can be effectively translated into multiple Class C addresses. For example, the IP address of 172.16.0.0 is assigned, but node addresses are limited to 255 maximum, allowing eight extra bits to use as a subnet address. The IP address of 172.16.97.235 would be interpreted as IP network address 172.16, subnet number 97, and node number 235. In addition to extending the number of addresses available, subnet addressing provides other benefits. Subnet addressing allows a network manager to construct an address scheme for the network by using different subnets for other geographical locations in the network or for other departments in the organisation. Although the preceding example uses the entire third octet for a subnet address, note that you are not restricted to octet boundaries in subnetting. To create more network numbers, you need only shift some bits from the host address to the network address. For instance, to partition a Class C network number 220.127.116.11) into two, you shift one bit from the host address to the network address. The new netmask (or subnet mask) is 255.255.255.128. The first subnet has network number 18.104.22.168 with hosts 22.214.171.124 to 126.96.36.199, and the second subnet has network number 188.8.131.52 with hosts 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11.
The number 18.104.22.168 is not assigned because it is the broadcast address of the first subnet.
The number 22.214.171.124 is not assigned because it is the network address of the second subnet.
The following table lists the additional subnet mask bits in dotted-decimal notation. To use the table, write down the original class netmask and replace the 0 value octets with the dotted-decimal value of the additional subnet bits. For example, to partition your Class C network with subnet mask 255.255.255.0 into 16 subnets (4 bits), the new subnet mask becomes 255.255.255.240.
|Number of Bits||Dotted-Decimal Value|
We strongly recommend that you configure all hosts on a LAN segment to use the same netmask for the following reasons:
- So that hosts recognise local IP broadcast packets
When a device broadcasts to its segment neighbours, it uses a destination address of the local network address with all ones for the host address. In order for this scheme to work, all devices on the segment must agree on which bits comprise the host address.
- So that a local router or bridge recognises which addresses are local and which are remote.
Private IP AddressesTop
If your local network is isolated from the Internet (for example, when using NAT), you can assign any IP addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the IANA has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private networks:
- 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
- 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255<
- 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255
NETGEAR recommends that you choose your private network number from this range. The DHCP server of the DG834 ADSL router is preconfigured to automatically assign private addresses. Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address; always follow the guidelines explained here. For more information about address assignment, refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets, and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) publishes RFCs on its Web site at www.ietf.org.
Single IP Address Operation Using NATTop
In the past, if multiple PCs on a LAN needed to access the Internet simultaneously, you had to obtain a range of IP addresses from the ISP. This type of Internet account is more costly than a single-address account typically used by a single user with a modem, rather than a router. The DG834 ADSL router employs an address-sharing method called Network Address Translation (NAT). This method allows several networked PCs to share an Internet account using only a single IP address, which may be statically or dynamically assigned by your ISP. The router accomplishes this address sharing by translating the internal LAN IP addresses to a single address that is globally unique on the Internet. The internal LAN IP addresses can be either private addresses or registered addresses. For more information about IP address translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network Address Translator (NAT).The following figure illustrates a single IP address operation.
This scheme offers the additional benefit of firewall-like protection because the internal LAN addresses are not available to the Internet through the translated connection. All incoming inquiries are filtered out by the router. This filtering can prevent intruders from probing your system. However, using port forwarding, you can allow one PC (for example, a Web server) on your local network to be accessible to outside users.
MAC Addresses and Address Resolution ProtocolTop
An IP address alone cannot be used to deliver data from one LAN device to another. To send data between LAN devices, you must convert the IP address of the destination device to its media access control (MAC) address. Each device on an Ethernet network has a unique MAC address, which is a 48-bit number assigned to each device by the manufacturer. The technique that associates the IP address with a MAC address is known as address resolution. Internet Protocol uses the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to resolve MAC addresses. If a device sends data to another station on the network and the destination MAC address is not yet recorded, ARP is used. An ARP request is broadcast onto the network. All stations on the network receive and read the request. The destination IP address for the chosen station is included as part of the message so that only the station with this IP address responds to the ARP request. All other stations discard the request.
The station with the correct IP address responds with its own MAC address directly to the sending device. The receiving station provides the transmitting station with the required destination MAC address. The IP address data and MAC address data for each station are held in an ARP table. The next time data is sent, the address can be obtained from the address information in the table. For more information about address assignment, refer to the IETF documents RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets, and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space. For more information about IP address translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network Address Translator (NAT).
Domain Name ServerTop
Many of the resources on the Internet can be addressed by simple descriptive names such aswww.NETGEAR.com. This addressing is very helpful at the application level, but the descriptive name must be translated to an IP address in order for a user to actually contact the resource. Just as a telephone directory maps names to phone numbers, or as an ARP table maps IP addresses to MAC addresses, a domain name system (DNS) server maps descriptive names of network resources to IP addresses. When a PC accesses a resource by its descriptive name, it first contacts a DNS server to obtain the IP address of the resource. The PC sends the desired message using the IP address. Many large organisations, such as ISPs, maintain their own DNS servers and allow their customers to use the servers to look up addresses.
IP Configuration by DHCPTop
When an IP-based local area network is installed, each PC must be configured with an IP address. If the PCs need to access the Internet, they should also be configured with a gateway address and one or more DNS server addresses. As an alternative to manual configuration, there is a method by which each PC on the network can automatically obtain this configuration information. A device on the network may act as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. The DHCP server stores a list or pool of IP addresses, along with other information (such as gateway and DNS addresses) that it may assign to the other devices on the network. The DG834 ADSL router has the capacity to act as a DHCP server. Most ADSL routers can also function as a DHCP client when connecting to the ISP. The router can automatically obtain an IP address, subnet mask, DNS server addresses, and a gateway address if the ISP provides this information by DHCP.